This is a calendar of feriae, or ancient Roman religious festivals and rituals, that I personally celebrate. In the Republic the Romans only had 10 months; however, 2 more were added in the late Republic/early Empire. The majority of the festivals on this page were taken from John Scheid’s An Introduction to Roman Religion – a book which I highly recommend – and the calendar on Nova Roma’s website. There is also evidence that people would celebrate the birthdays of current and deceased emperors, so if one wishes to do so, it seems perfectly acceptable.
- 1st of the month: the Kalends are the first day in each month. Along with honoring the Lar Familiaris and the dii Penates, the Kalends are sacred to Iuno and Ianus.
- 5th or 7th of the month: the Nones are the 5th or the 7th of the month, depending on what month it is. It is usually held on the 5th, with the exception being on the 7th in March, May, July, and October. The Lar Familiaris is honored on the Nones, along with the Dii Penates.
- 13th or 15th of the month: the Ides are on either the 13th or the 15th of each month, depending on when the Nones are held. This is because the Nones must be 9 days before the Ides. The rituals are held on the 15th in March, May, July, and October and on the 13th in all the other months. Iuppiter is honored on the Ides along with the Lar Familiaris and the Dii Penates.
- 1st: Kalends: Especially sacred to Ianus, as it is the first day of the first month of the secular new year.
- 9th: Agonalia: Sacred to Ianus, though the meaning is uncertain. A ewe would have been sacrificed.
- 11th, 15th: Carmentalia: Sacred to the nymph Carmentis and celebrated especially by women. Carmentis is invoked as Postvorta and Antevorta, indicating her power to look back to the past and forward to the future.
- 11th: Iuturnalia: Sacred to Iuturna, the goddess of fountains and prophetic waters.
- 24th: Sementivae: Sacred to Tellus and, one week later, Ceres. Used to pray for good crops in the new year.
- 1st: Iunoni Sospitae: Day in honor of the dedication to the temple of Iuno Sospita (Juno the Savior) in 197 BC.
- 1st: Amburbium: A day of purification in honor of Februus, the god of purification.
- 2nd: Cerialia: Sacred to Ceres – praying in order to have good crops in the new year.
- 13th-21st: Parentalia: Sacred to the Dii Manes, the good ancestral spirits.
- 15th: Lupercalia: Sacred to Faunus, this is the famous fertility festival. The Lupercii, one of the many groups of priests, would sacrifice goats, a dog, and cakes to the god. They would smear two young noblemen with blood and then send them running down the streets, lashing spectators with strips of goatskin to promote fertility.
- 17th: Quirinalia: Sacred to Quirinus, an ancient god thought later to be the deified Romulus and part of the early version of the Capitoline Triad.
- 18th: Tacita: Sacred to Tacita, the goddess of silence.
- 21st: Feralia: The Parentalia concludes with the public honoring the Dii Manes.
- 23rd: Terminalia: Sacred to Terminus, the god of boundaries.
- 24th: Regifugium: Celebration dedicated to the founding of the Republic and the expulsion of the last Kings of Rome.
- 27th: Equirria: Sacred to Mars, the god of war and agriculture. This is a festival of horse racing and occurs again on the 14th of March.
- 1st: Matronalia: Sacred to Iuno and her son Mars, this is a day which women would celebrate, as it celebrates childbirth and motherhood.
- 1st – 24th: Feriae Marti: This month is sacred to Mars, and his unique leaping priests, the Salii, would dance and leap – perhaps to encourage the crops to grow – on the 1st, the 9th, and the 23rd.
- 7th: Vediovae: Sacred to Vediovis, an underworld deity associated with Iuppiter.
- 9: First day of the Roman new year
- 14th: Equirria: The second Equirria of the year, again dedicated to Mars and featuring horse racing.
- 15th: Feriae Annae Perennae: Sacred to Anna Perenna so that the circle of the year would end on a happy note.
- 17th: Liberalia/Agonalia: Sacred to Liber, the ancient fertility god of the Aventine Triad. Also the date of the imported Bacchanalia, which was banned because of its unruly participants. On this day, priestesses of Liber would make and sacrifice cakes of honey and olive oil.
- 19th – 23rd: Quinquatria: Sacred to Minerva. The first day of the festival celebrates the birth of Minerva, and is indeed said to be the day on which she was born.
- 23rd: Tubilistrium: Final day of the Quinquatria.
- 30th: Festival of Salus: Sacred to Salus, the goddess of health and prosperity.
- 31st: Lunae: Sacred to Luna, the Titan goddess of the moon.
- 1st: Veneralia: Sacred to Venus.
- 12-19th: Cerialia: Games dedicated to Ceres.
- 15th: Fordicidia: Sacred to Tellus, the goddess of the Earth.
- 21st: Parilia: Sacred to Pales and the goddess Roma, also the founding date of the city of Rome.
- 23rd: Vinalia Priora: Sacred to Jupiter and Venus. The first jars of wine from the previous year were offered to them before men could drink from the jars.
- 25th: Robigalia: Sacred to the deity Robigus/Robigo, who protects against rust and mildew on crops.
- 28th–3rd May: Floralia: Sacred to Flora, the goddess of flowers and spring.
- 1st: Laribus/Festival to Bona Dea: Sacred to Bona Dea, this festival was only celebrated by women. The Laribus, on the other hand, is dedicated to the Lares Publici, the Lares who look after the State and her people.
- 9th, 11th, 13th: Lemuria: Sacred to the Lemures, angry spirits of the dead. A purification/exorcism ritual that takes place at midnight.
- 11th: Maniae: Sacred to Mania, the goddess of death and madness and mother of the first Lares.
- 15: Mercurius/Maia: Sacred to Mercurius, the god of merchants, traders, and speech, and the guide of the souls of the dead to the afterlife. Also sacred to Maia Maiestas, the mother of Mercurius.
- 20th: Agonalia: sacred to Ianus.
- 21st: Agonalia: Sacred to Vediovis.
- 1st: Tempestatibus: Sacred to Tempestates, the goddess of weather and storms.
- 1st: Carnae: Sacred to Carna, the goddess of door hinges and bodily health.
- 2nd: Iuno Moneta: Sacred to Iuno Moneta, goddess of financial security.
- 3rd: Bellonae: Sacred to Bellona, the goddess of war.
- 4th: Hercules Magno Custodi: Sacred to Hercules the Great Custodian.
- 5th: Dius Fidius: Sacred to Dius Fidius, “Divine Faith”, the god of the taking of oaths and the making of treaties.
- 8th: Mens: Sacred to Mens, the goddess of the mind and thoughts.
- 9th: Vestalia: Sacred to Vesta.
- 11th: Matralia: Sacred to Mater Matuta, the goddess of growth, childbirth, motherhood, and the raising of children.
- 13th-15th: Quinquatria: The “Lesser Quinquatria”, sacred to Minerva.
- 19th: Minervae: Sacred to Minerva.
- 20th: Iuppiter Summanus: Sacred to Iuppiter Summanus, who casts lightning bolts at night.
- 24th: Fors Fortuna: Sacred to Fors Fortuna, the goddess of good fortune.
- 27th: Iuppiter Stator: Sacred to Iuppiter Stator, “Jupiter the Stayer”, who aids soldiers in standing their ground in adversity.
- 29th: Hercules Musarum: Sacred to Hercules “of the Muses”.
- 5th: Poplifugium: Celebrates the ‘flight of the people’, but which event it commemorates is uncertain.
- 6th–13th: Ludi Apollinares: Games dedicated to Apollo.
- 19th, 21st: Lucaria: Celebrates nature and wooded places.
- 23rd: Neptunalia: Sacred to Neptunus.
- 5th: Salus: Sacred to Salus.
- 13th: Diana of Aricia
- 17th: Portunalia: Sacred to Portunus, the god of harbors.
- 19th: Vinalia Rustica: The “Lesser Vinalia”.
- 21st: Consualia: Sacred to Consus.
- 23rd: Volcanalia: Sacred to Vulcanus.
- 24th: Mundus Patet: Underworld festival where fruits are offered to the dead.
- 25th: Opiconsivia: Sacred to Ops.
- 27th: Volturnalia: Sacred to Volturnus.
- 5th–19th: Ludi Romani: The Roman Games. Held in honor of Iuppiter.
- 13th: Epulum Iovis
- 26th: Venus Genetrix
- 1st: Fides
- 5th: Mundus Patet: Underworld festival where fruits are offered to the dead.
- 11th: Meditrinalia: The sampling of new wine.
- 13th: Fontinalia: The controlling of natural water and springs is celebrated on this day.
- 15th: Equus October: Marking the end of the military season, this is the famous “October Horse”. Two-horse chariots were raced, and the inside horse of the winning team was sacrificed to Mars on the Campus Martius.
- 19th: Armilustrium: Also marks the end of the military season and is a day sacred to Mars.
- 4th-17th: Ludi Plebeii: Plebeian Games.
- 8th: Mundus Patet: Underworld festival where fruits are offered to the dead.
- 13th: Epulum Iovis
- 11th: Agonalia: Sacred to Sol Indiges.
- 15th: Consualia: Sacred to Consus, Mars, and the Lares.
- 17th-23rd: Saturnalia: Dedicated to Saturnus, this festival celebrates the Golden Age and is a time of revelry.
- 19th: Opalia: Sacred to Ops.
- 21st: Divalia: Sacred to Angerona.
- 23rd: Larentalia: Sacred to Acca Larentia.
- 25th: Dies Natalis Soli Invicti: A festival established later in the Empire in honor of Sol Invictus, the Unconquered Sun. Also has ties to Mithras and his Mithraic Mysteries.