Tellus, known as Terra Mater (literally “Mother Earth”) in the Imperial age, is the principle goddess who is associated with earth, i.e. the ground. Fitting since her name comes from the Latin noun tellus, which means earth, land, or territory.
Originally, Tellus received homage in the early Republic and was listed by the antiquarian Varro as one of the 20 Di selecti, the main deities of ancient Rome. By the time that Imperial Rome came around, she was commonly known as Terra Mater.
Her attributes are the cornucopia – a sign of plenty and bountiful harvests, which makes sense as she is a deity of the earth – and bunches of flowers and fruits. She is usually depicted reclining on the ground.
Most often she is paired with Caelus, the sky, though Tellumo is recorded by St. Augustine as being her male counterpart. She is also associated with Ceres, goddess of grain, agriculture, and fertility (among other things). In fact, both goddesses share several festivals: the Sementivae, and the Fordicidia, which takes place during the Cerealia (a festival dedicated to Ceres).
Tellus did not have her own priest: instead, public offerings were given to her by the Flamen Cerealis, the priest of Ceres. She did, however, have her own temple, which was located in the Carinae neighborhood on the Oppian Hill and dedicated on December 13th, 268 BCE. According to Cicero, within the temple was stored an object called the magmentarium, as well as a representation of Italy which hung on a wall.